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The second law states that, "For each character trait (ie: height, color, texture etc.) an organism inherits two genes, one from each parent." This statement alludes to the fact that when somatic cells are produced from two gametes, one allele comes from the mother, one from the father.
These alleles may be the same (true-breeding organisms), or different (hybrids).
However, it is his work with the pea plant that changed the world of science forever.
Mendel often wondered how plants obtained atypical characteristics.
As with many other flowering plants, pea plants have both male and female reproductive organs.
As a result, they can either self-pollinate themselves or cross-pollinate with other plants.
The third law, in relation to the second, declares that, "If the two alleles differ, then one, the dominant allele, is fully expressed in the organism's appearance; the other, the recessive allele, has no noticeable effect on the organism's appearance." The fourth law states that, "The two genes for each character segregate during gamete production." This is the last part of Mendel's generalization.
This references meiosis when the chromosome count is changed from the diploid number to the haploid number.
He also had the foresight to look through several successive generations of his pea plants and record their variations.
On one of his frequent walks around the monastery, he found an atypical variety of an ornamental plant.
He took it and planted it next to the typical variety.
That is to say, they each had two identical forms (or alleles) of the gene for this trait--2 yellows or 2 greens.
The plants in the f1 generation were all heterozygous.